The Asia-Pacific Social Science Review (APSSR) is an internationally refereed journal published four times in a year—March (online edition), June (online and print editions), September (online), and December (online and print) by De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines. It aims to be a leading venue for authors seeking to share their data and perspectives on compelling and emerging topics in the social sciences with, and to create an impact on, the region’s communities of academics, researchers, students, civil society, policymakers, and development specialists, among others. Topics related to or with implications for the region that are pursued employing sound methodologies and comparative, and inter, multi, and transdisciplinary approaches are of particular interest. Overall, the APSSR seeks to glocalize knowledge towards developing a body of regional perspectives on key global issues. The APSSR is listed in the Elsevier’s Scopus, the ASEAN Citation Index, and EBSCO and is a Category A journal based on the Philippines’ Commission on Higher Education list. The Review has both printed and online (http://apssr.com/) editions, and a Facebook Page, at https://www.facebook.com/DLSUAPSSR/.


Annual subscription rates (including airmail delivery costs): overseas (US$60 for libraries and institutions and US$50 for individuals) and domestic (PHP1,800 for libraries and institutions and PHP1,300 for individuals). Contact Ms. Joanne Castañares at +6325234281 (telefax) or dlsupublishinghouse@dlsu.edu.ph.



Ador Torneo
De La Salle University, Philippines

Joseph Ching Velasco
Managing Editor
De La Salle University, Philippines

Mark Stephan Felix
Academic Editor
Mahidol University, Thailand

Bing Baltazar Brillo
Academic Editor
University of the Philippines, Los Baños

Yan Liu
Academic Editor
Jining Medical University, China

Jeremy de Chavez
Academic Editor
University of Macau, Macau SAR




Patricio N. Abinales
University of Hawaii-Manoa, USA

Leonora Angeles
University of British Columbia, Canada

Edward Aspinall
The Australian National University

William Case
City University of Hong Kong, China

Nopraenue Sajjarax Dhirathiti
Mahidol University, Thailand

Edmund Terence Gomez
University of Malaya, Malaysia

Joaquin Gonzalez III
Golden Gate University, USA

Huong Ha
Singapore University of Social Sciences


Allen Hicken
University of Michigan, USA

Brendan Howe
Ewha Womans University, South Korea

Paul Hutchcroft
The Australian National University

Yuko Kasuya
Keio University, Japan

Philip Kelly
York University, Canada

Koichi Nakano
Sophia University, Japan

Robert Salazar
Ritsumeikan University, Japan

Christian Schafferer
Overseas Chinese University, Taiwan

Bilveer Singh
National University of Singapore

Julio Teehankee
De La Salle University, Philippines

Mark Thompson
City University of Hong Kong, China

Dirk Tomsa
La Trobe University, Australia

Andreas Ufen
German Institute of Global Affairs, Germany

Meredith Weiss
State University of New York at Albany, USA

Marcus Antonius Ynalvez
Texas A&M International University, USA